Atomic Hole Doping of Graphene
The application of graphene in nanoscale electronic devices requires the deliberate control of the density and character of its charge carriers. We show by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy that substantial hole doping in the conical band structure of epitaxial graphene monolayers can be achieved by the adsorption of bismuth, antimony, or gold. In the case of gold doping the Dirac point is shifted into the unoccupied states. Atomic doping presents excellent perspectives for large scale production.