Complementary methods have been developed for surface nanostructuring using molecular self-assembly, reactive ion etching and replication techniques. First, controlled surface nanostructures with tunable lateral dimensions from tens of nanometer to tens of micrometers have been produced by polymer self-assembly, over large area and at low cost. The resulting nanostructures could find applications as antireflective layer or as security features for traceability and anti-counterfeiting applications.