We present the phase diagram of the frustrated ferromagnetic S=1/2 Heisenberg J(1)-J(2) chain in a magnetic field, obtained by large scale exact diagonalizations and density matrix renormalization group simulations. A vector chirally ordered state, metamagnetic behavior and a sequence of spin-multipolar Luttinger liquid phases up to hexadecupolar kind are found. We provide numerical evidence for a locking mechanism, which can drive spiral states toward spin-multipolar phases, such as quadrupolar or octupolar phases. Our results also shed light on previously discovered spin-multipolar phases in two-dimensional S=1/2 quantum magnets in a magnetic field.