The effect of anodic oxidation on the electronic characteristics of lattice-matched AlInN/GaN heterostructures was investigated using field-effect transistor (FET) structures with the gate areas in direct contact with the electrolytes. The gate surface of the FETs was subjected to anodic oxidation in 0.1 M KOH. The oxidized heterostructures were analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and by modeling the characteristics of the electrolyte-gate FETs and the energy-band diagram of the heterostructures. This analysis suggested that the anodic treatment induced a bulk oxidation of the AlInN barrier. The Fermi level at the oxidized AlInN surface was shifted deep into the bandgap. The oxidation led to a reduction of the carrier mobility and to partial depletion of the channel.