Additive-Assisted Aqueous Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanopowders
The effect of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), and D-fructose additives on the growth of BaTiO3 particles by aqueous synthesis is studied. Through different mechanisms, all the tested additives influenced the growth of BaTiO3. For high concentrations, PAA adsorbed on specific crystallographic faces changing the growth kinetics and inducing the oriented attachment of the particles acting as a crystal growth modifier. PVP, SDS, and HPMC behave as growth inhibitors rather than crystal habit modifiers, and barium titanate crystals as small as 26 nm were obtained. D-Fructose appeared to increase the activation energy for barium titanate nucleation when the additive concentration increases. The present study gives new insights into how additives control barium titanate particle growth in aqueous media.