Complete nucleotide sequence and genetic organization of the bacteriocinogenic plasmid, pIP404, from Clostridium perfringens
The complete nucleotide sequence of the bacteriocinogenic plasmid, pIP404, from Clostridium perfringens has been determined. The plasmid genome comprises 10,207 bp and has a dA + dT content of 75%. Functions have been tentatively assigned to 6 of the 10 open reading frames and an origin-like region of repeated sequence identified. The codon usage of this extremely dA + dT rich plasmid is highly unusual and displays a pronounced preference for codons with the lowest dG + dC content. Only one of the genes from pIP404 was expressed at a significant level in Escherichia coli, suggesting that the atypical codon usage could represent a major obstacle to heterologous gene expression.