The complete nucleotide sequence of the bacteriocinogenic plasmid, pIP404, from Clostridium perfringens has been determined. The plasmid genome comprises 10,207 bp and has a dA + dT content of 75%. Functions have been tentatively assigned to 6 of the 10 open reading frames and an origin-like region of repeated sequence identified. The codon usage of this extremely dA + dT rich plasmid is highly unusual and displays a pronounced preference for codons with the lowest dG + dC content. Only one of the genes from pIP404 was expressed at a significant level in Escherichia coli, suggesting that the atypical codon usage could represent a major obstacle to heterologous gene expression.