Genotypic analysis was performed on 48 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains collected from a hospital in Dhaka city. Deletion analysis showed that the isolates were all M. tuberculosis; 13 of them were found to be of the "ancestral" type, while 35 were of the "modern" type, indicating that both endemic (ancestral type) and epidemic (modern type) strains cause tuberculosis in Bangladesh. Genotyping based on the spoligotype and variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU) was also done. A total of 34 strains (71%) were grouped by spoligotyping into nine different clusters; the largest comprised 15 isolates of the Beijing genotype, whereas the remaining eight clusters consisted of two to five isolates. MIRU-VNTR typing detected 32 different patterns among 44 tested strains, and the 15 Beijing strains were further discriminated by MIRU-VNTR typing (7 distinct patterns for the 15 isolates). These results indicate that MIRU-VNTR typing, along with spoligotyping and deletion analysis, can be used effectively for molecular epidemiological studies to determine ongoing transmission clusters; to our knowledge, this is the first report about the type of strains prevailing in Bangladesh.