We present a comprehensive overview of an extension of the Standard Model that contains three right-handed (sterile) neutrinos with masses below the electroweak scale [the Neutrino Minimal Standard Model (vMSM)]. We consider the history of the Universe from the inflationary era through today and demonstrate that most of the observed phenomena beyond the Standard Model can be explained within the framework of this model. We review the mechanism of baryon asymmetry of the Universe in the vMSM and discuss a dark matter candidate that can be warm or cold and that satisfies all existing constraints. From the viewpoint of particle physics, the model provides an explanation for neutrino flavor oscillations. Verification of the vMSM is possible with existing experimental techniques. Copyright © 2009 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.