Journal article

Acoustic node calibration using moving sources

Acoustic nodes, each containing an array of microphones, can track targets in x-y space from their received acoustic signals, if the node positions and orientations are known exactly. However, it is not always possible to deploy the nodes precisely, so a calibration phase is needed to estimate the position and the orientation of each node before doing any tracking or localization. An acoustic node can be calibrated from sources of opportunity such as beacons or a moving source. In this paper, we derive and compare several calibration methods for the case where the node can hear a moving source whose position can be reported back to the node. Since calibration from a moving source is, in effect, the dual of a tracking problem, methods derived for acoustic target trackers are used to obtain robust and high resolution acoustic calibration processes. For example, two direction-of-arrival-based calibration methods can be formulated based on combining angle estimates, geometry, and the motion dynamics of the moving source. In addition, a maximum-likelihood (ML) solution is presented using a narrow-band acoustic observation model, along with a Newton-based search algorithm that speeds up the calculation the likelihood surface. The Cramer-Rao lower bound on the node position estimates is also derived to show that the effect of position errors for the moving source on the estimated node position is much less severe than the variance in angle estimates from the microphone array. The performance of the calibration algorithms is demonstrated on synthetic and field data.

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