The interaction of mitochondrial creatine kinase (Mi-CK; EC with phospholipid monolayers and spread mitochondrial membranes at the air/water interface has been investigated. It appeared that Mi-CK penetrated into these monolayers as evidenced by an increase in surface pressure upon incorporation of Mi-CK. The increase in surface pressure was dependent on (1) the amount and (2) the oligomeric form of Mi-CK in the subphase, as well as on (3) the initial surface pressure and (4) the phospholipid composition of the monolayer. In this experimental system Mi-CK was able to interact equally well with both inner and outer mitochondrial membranes.