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The Anzali Ramsar Convention wetland is located in an ecologically and economically important region in Iran. The wetland is largely surrounded by agriculture, natural forests and rangelands (approximately 36% and 63%, respectively). Urban areas consist of less than 1% of the total area. Urban land use produces the highest rates of nutrient transfer into the lake as TN, TP and BOD5 equal to 24, 2.4 and 79 Kg/ha/year, respectively, whilst, natural land use produces the lowest rate as 10, 1.3 and 27 kg/ha/year. These results will inform the future sustainable management of this important wetland in this ever increasingly water stressed region in Iran.