One-Dimensional Hairsine-Rose Erosion Model: Parameter Consistency for Soil Erosion in the Presence of Rainfall Splash
Process-based erosion modelling has proven to be an efficient tool for description and prediction of soil erosion and sediment transport. The one-dimensional Hairsine-Rose (HR) erosion model, which describes the time variation of suspended sediment concentration of multiple particle sizes, accounts for key soil erosion mechanisms: rainfall detachment, overland-flow entrainment and gravity deposition. In interrill erosion, it is known that raindrop splash is an important mechanism of sediment detachment and therefore of sediment delivery. In addition, studies have shown that the mass transported from a point source by raindrop splash decreases exponentially with radial distance and is controlled by drop characteristics and soil properties. Here we test experimentally and numerically the HR parameter consistency at different transversal widths for soil erosion in the presence of splash. To achieve this, soil erosion experiments were conducted using different configurations of the 2 m × 6 m EPFL erosion flume. The flume was divided into four identical smaller flumes, with different widths of 1 m, 0.5 m, and 2 × 0.25 m. Total sediment concentration and the concentrations for the individual size classes were measured. The experimental results indicate that raindrop splash dominated in the flumes having the larger widths (1 m and 0.5 m). This process generated a short time peak for all individual size classes. However, the effect of raindrop splash was less present in observed sediment concentrations of the collected data from the smaller width flumes (0.25 m). For these flumes, the detached sediment was controlled by the transversal width of the flume. An amount of detached sediment adhered to the barriers instead of being removed in the overland flow. Moreover, the experimental results showed that the boundary conditions affect the concentration of the mid-size and the larger particles. The one-dimensional Hairsine-Rose model was used to fit the integrated data and to provide parameter estimates for each flume. The analytical results agreed with the total sediment concentrations but not the measured sediment concentrations of all individual size classes. The observed sediment concentrations for the individual size classes could be predicted only when the initial sediment concentration was adjusted and a new calculation of the settling velocities was used. This new settling velocity calculation was conducted by taking the effect of raindrop splash on the deposition force of the particles into account.
Record created on 2009-11-09, modified on 2016-08-08