We introduce AdaptPD, an automated physical design tool that improves database performance by continuously monitoring changes in the workload and adapting the physical design to suit the incoming workload. Current physical design tools are offline and require specification of a representative workload. AdaptPD is “always on” and incorporates online algorithms which profile the incoming workload to calculate the relative benefit of transitioning to an alternative design. Efficient query and transition cost estimation modules allow AdaptPD to quickly decide between various design configurations. We evaluate AdaptPD with the SkyServer Astronomy database using queries submitted by SkyServer’s users. Experiments show that AdaptPD adapts to changes in the workload, improves query performance substantially over offline tools, and introduces minor computational overhead.