The purpose of this review is to describe the current status and to highlight several emerging trends in the manufacture of recombinant therapeutic proteins in cultivated mammalian cells. focusing on Chinese hamster ovary cells as the major production host. Over the past 25 years, specific and volumetric productivities for recombinant cell lines have increased about 20-fold as the result of improvements in media and bioprocess design Future yield increases are expected to come from further developments ill gene delivery and genetic selection for more efficient recovery of high-producing cell lines and in high-throughput cultivation systems to simplify medium design and bioprocess development Other emerging trends in protein manufacturing that are discussed include the use of disposal bioreactors and transient gene expression. We specifically highlight current research in our own laboratories (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved