Journal article

Cell-compatible array of three-dimensional tip electrodes for the detection of nitric oxide release

An array of electrodes on which cells could be grown directly was fabricated using silicon anisotropic etching and a thick-photoresist process and employed for the detection of nitric oxide (NO) released from a population of adherently growing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The electrodes are tip-shaped and are 40 μm high of which only the top 15 μm are exposed Pt-tips. After electrochemical induced modification of the exposed Pt tips using Ni phthalocyanine the individual addressable electrode tips were sensitive and selective for the detection of NO at an applied constant potential of 750 mV. The silicon nitride insulation of the lower part of the tip electrodes prevented the death of the cells upon the application of the working potential at which NO was detected. It also helped to avoid the perturbation of the integrity of the sensing chemistry imparted on the electrode surface that could have resulted from the contact of the adherently growing cells with the active electrode surface. The release of nitric oxide from HUVEC was successfully monitored with different numbers of tip electrodes simultaneously connected as combined working electrode. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Related material