A miniaturised Total chemical Analysis System (μTAS) for glucose and lactate measurement in biological samples constructed based on an integrated microdialysis sampling and detection system. The complete system incorporates a microdialysis probe for intravascular monitoring in an ex vivo mini-shunt arrangement, and a silicon micromachined stack with incorporated miniaturised flow cell/sensor array. The prototype device has been developed based on state-of-the-art membrane and printed circuit board technology. The flow-through detection system is based on a three-dimensional flow circuit incorporating silicon chips with stacked micromachined channels. An integrated biosensor array (comprising enzyme sensors specific for glucose and lactate) is placed at the base of the stack allowing the detector to be incorporated within the μTAS assembly. These glucose and lactate biosensors are prepared using photolithographic techniques, with measurement based on the detection of hydrogen peroxide at glucose oxidase and lactate oxidase modified platinum electrodes. The resulting amperometric current (at 500 mV vs, Ag/AgCl) is proportional to the concentration of analyte in the sample. All instrumentation is under computer control and the complete unit allows continuous on-line monitoring of glucose and lactate, with fast stable signals over the relevant physiological range for both analytes. The microdialysis system provides 100% sampling efficiency. Sensor performance studies undertaken include optimisation of sensitivity, linearity, operational stability, background current, storage stability and hydration time. The total system (sampling and detection) response time is of the order of 4 min, with sensor sensitivity 1-5 nA mM-1 for glucose and lactate over the range 0.1-33 and 0.05-15 mM, respectively.