The human leukemia cell line, THP-1: a multifacetted model for the study of monocyte-macrophage differentiation
THP-1 is a human monocytic leukemia cell line. After treatment with phorbol esters, THP-1 cells differentiate into macrophage-like cells which mimic native monocyte-derived macrophages in several respects. Compared to other human myeloid cell lines, such as HL-60, U937, KG-1, or HEL cell lines, differentiated THP-1 cells behave more like native monocyte-derived macrophages. Because of these characteristics, the THP-1 cell line provides a valuable model for studying the mechanisms involved in macrophage differentiation, and for exploring the regulation of macrophage-specific genes as they relate to physiological functions displayed by these cells.