Magnetic circular dichroism in electron energy loss spectrometry
The measurement of circular dichroism in the electron microscope is a new, emerging method and, as such, it is subject to constant refinement and improvement. Different ways can be envisaged to record the signal. We present an overview of the key steps in the energy-loss magnetic chiral dichroism (EMCD) experiment as well as a detailed review of the methods used in the intrinsic way where the specimen is used as a beam splitter. Lateral resolution up to 20-30 nm can be achieved, and the use of convergent beam techniques leads to an improved S / N ratio. Dichroic effects are shown for Ni and Co single crystal; as a counterexample, measurements were carried also for a non-magnetic (Ti) sample, where no dichroic effect was found.