Building upon the similarities between inelastic electron scattering and X-ray absorption we show that dichroism can be observed in electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS) in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Natural or magnetic linear dichroism can be studied in electron scattering experiment with definite wave vector transfer in the interaction. The detection of circular dichroism in the TEM relies on interferometric EELS in a particular scattering geometry that allows extraction of the mixed dynamic form factor from energy loss spectra. Similarities between dichroic signals in energy loss near edge structures and X-ray absorption near edge structures are discussed, and a new experimental setup for dichroic measurements in the TEM is proposed.