Following endocytosis, ubiquitinated signaling receptors are incorporated within intraluminal vesicles of forming multivesicular endosomes. These vesicles then follow the pathway from early to late endosomes, remaining within the endosomal lumen, and are eventually delivered to lysosomes, where they are degraded together with their protein cargo. However, intraluminal vesicles do not always end up in lysosomes for degradation; they can also fuse back with the limiting membrane of late endosomes. This route, which might be regulated by lyso-bisphosphatidic acid and its putative effector Alix, can be hijacked by the anthrax toxin and vesicular stomatitis virus and is presumably exploited by proteins and lipids that transit through intraluminal vesicles. Alternatively, these vesicles can be released extracellularly, like HIV in macrophages, upon fusion of endosomes or lysosomes with the plasma membrane