Pore formation: an ancient yet complex form of attack

Bacteria, as well as higher organisms such as sea anemones or earthworms, have developed sophisticated virulence factors such as the pore-forming toxins (PFTs) to mount their attack against the host. One of the most fascinating aspects of PFTs is that they can adopt a water-soluble form at the beginning of their lifetime and become an integral transmembrane protein in the membrane of the target cells. There is a growing understanding of the sequence of events and the various conformational changes undergone by these toxins in order to bind to the host cell surface, to penetrate the cell membranes and to achieve pore formation. These points will be addressed in this review


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