Reducing energy consumption in the pulp and paper industry can lead to considerable cost savings. The three main points to consider when implementing an energy efficiency program in a mill are the reduction of the energy requirement, the energy recovery and the efficient integration of the energy conversion system. This analysis leads to the definition of an energy efficiency road map with the evaluation of the energy savings and the related investment costs. Due to the high level of integration of a pulp and paper process, no single method can cover the spectrum of tasks to be accomplished; a spectrum of computer-aided process engineering tools must be used. Mill- wide process simulation combined with the application of process integration tools, such as pinch analysis, is the key for reaching the energy savings target. A comprehensive computer-aided methodology to analyse the integration of utility systems and energy conversion technologies has been developed. Its goal is the identification of energy savings options by means of process integration and thermo-economic optimisation techniques.