For good performance in practice, real-time optimization schemes need to be able to deal with the inevitable model-mismatch problem. Unlike the two-step schemes combining parameter estimation and optimization, the modifier-adaptation approach uses experimental gradient information and does not require the model parameters to be estimated on-line. The dual modifier-adaptation approach presented in this paper drives the process towards optimality, while paying attention to the accuracy of the estimated gradients. The gradients are estimated from the successive operating points generated by the optimization algorithm. The novelty lies in the development of an upper bound on the gradient estimation error, which is used as a constraint for locating the next operating point. The proposed approach is demonstrated in simulation by the real-time optimization of a continuous reactor.