The kidney is a key organ in the maintenance of ion and fluid homeostasis and specific transport systems localized along the nephron guarantee this function. Due to its large functional heterogeneity, experiments on the whole organ level cannot be easily performed, and thus more refined tools are needed, like for example the development of specific recombination systems to gain knowledge on the physiological role of single proteins implicated in ion transport. This review introduces the transgenic technology developed over the past decades, and then focuses on recent strategies for generating kidney-specific gene targeting, over-expression, and gene ablation in mice, that will help to understand the physiological role of proteins implicated in salt and water balance in the kidney.