Full-wafer fabrication by nanostencil lithography of micro/nanomechanical mass sensors monolithically integrated with CMOS
Wafer-scale nanostencil lithography (nSL) is used to define several types of silicon mechanical resonators, whose dimensions range from 20 μm down to 200 nm, monolithically integrated with CMOS circuits. We demonstrate the simultaneous patterning by nSL of 2000 nanodevices per wafer by post-processing standard CMOS substrates using one single metal evaporation, pattern transfer to silicon and subsequent etch of the sacrificial layer. Resonance frequencies in the MHz range were measured in air and vacuum. As proof-of-concept towards an application as high performance sensors, CMOS integrated nano/micromechanical resonators are successfully implemented as ultra-sensitive areal mass sensors. These devices demonstrate the ability to monitor the deposition of gold layers whose average thickness is smaller than a monolayer. Their areal mass sensitivity is in the range of 10−11 gcm−2 Hz−1, and their thickness resolution corresponds to approximately a thousandth of a monolayer.