The analog readout of the LHCb vertex detector and study of the measurement of the Bs oscillation frequency

The LHCb detector is one of the four experimental setups built to detect high-energy proton collisions to be produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Located at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland), the LHC machine and the LHCb experiment are expected to start in 2008, and will then operate for several years. Being the largest collider of its kind, the LHC will open the way to new investigations, in the very-high energies, but also in terms of statistics for the study of rare-phenomena and flavor physics. In this framework LHCb is dedicated to precise measurements of CP-violating and rare decays of beauty hadrons, in order to test (or over-constrain) the Standard Model of particle physics. From the hardware point of view, the construction of such detectors represents several challenges; one of them is the routing at a very high frequency of many signals in a harsh radiation environment. We designed to this purpose a hardware setup and a software filter which together reduce the cross-talk present in the readout of the LHCb vertex detector to a level of (1 ± 2)%, leading to an improved signal quality in the acquisition chain. From the physics point of view, many of the CP-violation measurements performed at LHCb using Bs decays, for example using Bs → Ds∓ K± decays, will require as input the Bs–Bs oscillation frequency Δms. Thus the measurement of Bs–Bs oscillations, which are best observed using the flavor-specific Bs → Ds- π+ decays, will play an important role. We have developed a complete selection of Bs → Ds- π+ and Bs → Ds∓ K± events, based on Monte Carlo simulations. Assuming 2 fb-1 of data, we expect a Bs → Ds- π+ signal yield, after the first level of trigger, of 155 k events over a background between 0.6 k and 7.8 k events at 90% confidence level. Moreover, we assess with fast Monte Carlo studies the corresponding statistical sensitivity on the Bs oscillation frequency, σ(Δms) = 0.008 ps-1, on the wrong tag fraction, σ(ω) = 0.003, as well as on other parameters related to the Bs-meson system. We also addressed an important aspect of the systematics associated with the Δms measurement, and developed a method to calibrate and assess the length scale. This calibration is performed through the reconstruction of secondary interactions occurring in the material of the vertex detector. We show that the statistical relative precision of this approach quickly matches 6 × 10-5, obtained from the survey measurements of the detector.

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