EU megawatt-class 140-GHz CW gyrotron
The first series tube of the gyrotrons for the 10-MW electron cyclotron resonance heating system of the stellarator W7-X was tested at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK) and yielded a total output power of 0.98 MW, with an,efficiency of 31% (without a single-stage depressed collector) in short-pulse operation and of 0.92 MW in pulses of 180 s (efficiency of almost 45% at a depression voltage of 29 W). The Gaussian mode output power was 0.91 MW. The pulselength at full power (1 MW) is limited at FZK by the available power supply. At a reduced electron beam current, it is possible to operate at longer pulselengths. At an output power of 0.57 MW (electron beam current of 29 A), the pulselength was increased to 1893 s. There was no physical reason for a limitation of this pulse: The pressure increase during the pulse was less than a factor of two and ended up at a very low value in the 10(-9) mbar range. The tube was delivered to Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik Greifswald for tests at full power and up to 30-min pulselength. The Gaussian mode RF output power, measured in a calorimetric load after a 25-m-long quasi-optical transmission line (seven mirrors), was 0.87 MW at a total output power of 0.92 MW in 30-min pulses. Again, no indications for a limitation in pulselength were found. The second series tube was tested in short-pulse operation and showed a strange behavior concerning a mode hopping which has not yet been understood. The third series gyrotron delivers up to now 0.65 MW at a pulse duration of 180 s. Preliminary operation of the prototype tube as a two-frequency gyrotron delivered 0.41 MW in 10-s pulses at 103.8 GHz (TE21,6 mode).