Overview of transport, fast particle and heating and current drive physics using tritium in JET plasmas
Results are presented from the JET Trace Tritium Experimental (TTE) campaign using minority tritium (T) plasmas (n(T)/n(D) < 3%). Thermal tritium particle transport coefficients (D-T, nu(T)) are found to exceed neo-classical values in all regimes, except in ELMy H-modes at high densities and in the region of internal transport barriers (ITBs) in reversed shear plasmas. In ELMy H-mode dimensionless parameter scans, at q(95) 2.8 and triangularity delta = 0.2, the T particle transport scales in a gyro-Bohm manner in the inner plasma (r/a < 0.4), whilst the outer plasma particle transport scaling is more Bohm-like. Dimensionless parameter scans show contrasting behaviour for the trace particle confinement (increases with collisionality, nu* and beta) and bulk energy confinement (decreases with nu* and is independent of beta). In an extended ELMy H-mode data set, with rho*, nu*, and q varied but with neo-classical tearing modes (NTMs) either absent or limited to weak, benign core modes (4/3 or above), the multiparameter fit to the normalized diffusion coefficient in the outer plasma (0.65 < r/a < 0.8) gives D-T/B-phi similar to rho*(2.46) nu*(-0.23) beta(-1.01) q(2.03). In hybrid scenarios (q(min) similar to 1, low positive shear, no sawteeth), the T particle confinement is found to scale with increasing triangularity and plasma current. Comparing regimes (ELMy H-mode, ITB plasma and hybrid scenarios) in the outer plasma region, a correlation of high values of D-T with high values Of nu(T) is seen. The normalized diffusion coefficients for the hybrid and ITB scenarios do not fit the scaling derived for ELMy H-modes. The normalized tritium diffusion scales with normalized poloidal Larmor radius (rho(theta)* = q rho*) in a manner close to gyro-Bohm (similar to rho(sigma)*(3)), with an added inverse P dependence. The effects of ELMs, sawteeth and NTMs on the T particle transport are described. Fast-ion confinement in current-hole (CH) plasmas was tested in TTE by tritium neutral beam injection into JET CH plasmas. gamma-rays from the reactions of fusion alpha and beryllium impurities (Be-9(alpha, n gamma)C-12) characterized the fast fusion-alpha population evolution. The gamma-decay times are consistent with classical alpha plus parent fast triton slowing down times (tau(Ts) + tau(alpha s)) for high plasma currents (I-p > 2 MA) and monotonic q-profiles. In CH discharges the gamma-ray emission decay times are much lower than classical (tau(Ts) + tau(alpha s)), indicating alpha confinement degradation, due to the orbit losses and particle orbit drift predicted by a 3-D Fokker-Planck numerical code and modelled using TRANSP.