High field side measurements of non-thermal electron cyclotron emission on TCV plasmas with ECH and ECCD
Measurements of electron cyclotron emission (ECE) from the high field side of the TCV tokamak have been made on plasmas heated by second and third harmonic X-mode electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD). Suprathermal ECE, up to a factor of six in excess of thermal emission, is detected in the presence of second harmonic X-mode (X2) ECCD and of third harmonic X-mode (X3) ECH. The measured ECE spectra are modelled using a bi-Maxwellian describing the bulk and the suprathermal electron populations. Suprathermal temperatures between 10 and 50 keV and densities in the range 1 x 10(17)-6 x 10(18) m(-3) are obtained, and correspond to 3-15 bulk temperatures and 1-20% bulk densities. Good agreement between ECE suprathermal temperatures and energetic photon temperatures, measured by a hard x-ray camera, is found. For optically thin X3 low field side injection in the presence of X2 CO-ECCD, the suprathermal population partly explains the discrepancy between global and first pass absorption measurements.