Effects of Trapped Thermal Particles on the N=1 Internal Kink Mode in Tokamaks
The effects of thermal trapped particles on the internal kink mode are studied using drift kinetic theory. For equal electron and ion temperatures, the trapped particles increase the marginal poloidal beta at q=1 substantially. For unequal temperatures, drift resonance with the hotter species is destabilizing and can lead to instability below the ideal magnetohyrodynamics threshold. An electrostatic potential is weakly stabilizing for the internal kink. At high beta, fluctuations of trapped particle modes couple to the internal kink mode and can lead to large displacements of the central region.