000117690 001__ 117690
000117690 005__ 20181203021111.0
000117690 0247_ $$2doi$$a10.1073/pnas.94.25.13695
000117690 037__ $$aARTICLE
000117690 245__ $$aRegulation of number and size of digits by posterior Hox genes: a dose-dependent mechanism with potential evolutionary implications
000117690 269__ $$a1997
000117690 260__ $$c1997
000117690 336__ $$aJournal Articles
000117690 500__ $$aDepartment of Zoology and Animal Biology, University of Geneva, Sciences III, Quai Ernest Ansermet 30, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
000117690 520__ $$aThe proper development of digits, in tetrapods, requires the activity of several genes of the HoxA and HoxD homeobox gene complexes. By using a variety of loss-of-function alleles involving the five Hox genes that have been described to affect digit patterning, we report here that the group 11, 12, and 13 genes control both the size and number of murine digits in a dose-dependent fashion, rather than through a Hox code involving differential qualitative functions. A similar dose-response is observed in the morphogenesis of the penian bone, the baculum, which further suggests that digits and external genitalia share this genetic control mechanism. A progressive reduction in the dose of Hox gene products led first to ectrodactyly, then to olygodactyly and adactyly. Interestingly, this transition between the pentadactyl to the adactyl formula went through a step of polydactyly. We propose that in the distal appendage of polydactylous short-digited ancestral tetrapods, such as Acanthostega, the HoxA complex was predominantly active. Subsequent recruitment of the HoxD complex contributed to both reductions in digit number and increase in digit length. Thus, transition through a polydactylous limb before reaching and stabilizing the pentadactyl pattern may have relied, at least in part, on asynchronous and independent changes in the regulation of HoxA and HoxD gene complexes.
000117690 700__ $$aZakany, J.
000117690 700__ $$aFromental-Ramain, C.
000117690 700__ $$aWarot, X.
000117690 700__ $$0240276$$aDuboule, D.$$g141236
000117690 773__ $$j94$$k25$$q13695-700$$tProc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A
000117690 909C0 $$0252099$$pUPDUB$$xU11705
000117690 909CO $$ooai:infoscience.tind.io:117690$$pSV$$particle
000117690 937__ $$aUPDUB-ARTICLE-1997-007
000117690 973__ $$aOTHER$$rREVIEWED$$sPUBLISHED
000117690 980__ $$aARTICLE