Evaporation from a small water reservoir: Direct measurements and estimates
Summary Knowing the rate of evaporation from surface water resources such as chan¬nels and reservoirs is essential for precise management of the water balance. However, evaporation is difﬁcult to measure experimentally over water surfaces and several tech¬niques and models have been suggested and used in the past for its determination. In this research, evaporation from a small water reservoir in northern Israel was measured and estimated using several experimental techniques and models during the rainless summer. Evaporation was measured with an eddy covariance (EC) system consisting of a three-dimensional sonic anemometer and a Krypton hygrometer. Measurements of net radia¬tion, air temperature and humidity, and water temperature enabled estimation of other energy balance components. Several models and energy balance closure were evaluated. In addition, evaporation from a class-A pan was measured at the site. EC evaporation measurements for 21 days averaged 5.48 mm day�1. Best model predictions were obtained with two combined ﬂux-gradient and energy balance models (Penman–Mon¬teith–Unsworth and Penman–Brutsaert), which with the water heat ﬂux term, gave sim¬ilar daily average evaporation rates, that were up to 3% smaller than the corresponding EC values. The ratio between daily pan and EC evaporation varied from 0.96 to 1.94. The bulk mass transfer coefﬁcient was estimated using a model based on measurements of water surface temperature, evaporation rate and absolute humidity at 0.9 and 2.9 m above the water surface, and using two theoretical approaches. The bulk transfer coefﬁcient.