Acoustic tomography for scalar and vector fields: theory and application to temperature and wind estimation
Acoustic tomography is a type of inverse problem. The idea of estimating physical quantities that influence sound propagation by measuring the parameters of propagation has proven to be successful in many practical domains, including temperature and wind estimation in the atmosphere. However, in most of the previous work in this area, the algorithms used have not been proven mathematically to provide the correct solution to the inverse problem. This paper considers the problem of reconstructing 2D temperature and wind fields by using acoustic tomography setups. Primarily, it shows that the classical time-of-flight measurements are not sufficient to reconstruct wind fields. As a solution, an additional set of measurements related solely to the parameters of sound propagation—more precisely, to the angles of departure/arrival of sound waves—is suggested. To take the full benefit of this additional information, the bent-ray model of sound propagation is introduced. In this work, it is also shown that, when a temperature and a source-free 2D wind field are observed on bounded domains, the complete reconstruction is possible using only measurements of the time of flight. Conversely, the angles of departures/arrivals are sufficient to reconstruct a temperature and a curl-free 2D wind fields on bounded domains. Further, an iterative reconstruction algorithm is proposed and possible variations to the main scheme are discussed. Finally, the performed numerical simulations confirm the theoretical results, demonstrate fast convergence, and show the advantages of the adopted bent-ray model for sound propa- gation over the straight-ray model.