Inositol 2,4,5-trisphosphate irreversibly activated capacitative calcium entry in Xenopus oocytes, whereas guanosine thiotriphosphate (GTP[S]) and AIF4- only activated capacitative calcium entry transiently. Both GTP[S] and AIF4- inhibited capacitative calcium entry activated by thapsigargin pretreatment, but guanosine thiodiphosphate (GDP[S]), inositol 2,4,5-trisphosphate and dibutyryl cyclic GMP did not affect capacitative calcium entry. This suggests the involvement of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins in the regulation of capacitative calcium entry. Activation of protein kinase C or cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase had profound effects on capacitative calcium entry, which were consistent with the hypothesis that the effects of GTP[S] and AIF4- on capacitative calcium entry may be mediated via heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein stimulation of kinases. Further evidence for this hypothesis was derived from the result that the effects of GTP[S] on calcium entry could be inhibited by the application of the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine.