The shedding process of the von Kármán vortices is shown to be highly related to the state of the boundary layer over the entire hydrofoil: The selected hydrofoil has a laminar-turbulent boundary layer transition at mid-chord for an incidence angle of 0° and tested Reynolds number range. With the help of a distributed roughness, the transition to turbulence is triggered at leading edge. The vortex shedding frequency and the vortex-induced vibration are compared For the two roughness configurations. Cavitation is used as a mean of visualization of the wake flow: Since vortex-induced vibration and high speed visualization are synchronized, the hydrofoil vibration level is considered versus the vortex span-wise organization. The occurrence of the 3D structures of shed vortices and the modulation of the vortex-induced vibration signals are investigated.