Protein microarrays are an attractive approach for the high-throughput analysis of protein function, but their impact on proteomics has been limited by the technical difficulties associated with their generation. Here we demonstrate that fusion proteins of O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) can be used for the simple and reliable generation of protein microarrays for the analysis of protein function. Important features of the approach are the selectivity of the covalent immobilization; this allows for direct immobilization of proteins out of cell extracts, and the option both to label and to immobilize AGT fusion proteins, which allows for direct screening for protein-protein interactions between different AGT fusion proteins. In addition to the identification of protein-protein interactions, AGT-based protein microarrays can be used for the characterization of small molecule-protein interactions or post-translational modifications. The potential of the approach was demonstrated by investigating the post-translational modification of acyl carrier protein (ACP) from E. coli by different phosphopantetheine transferases (PPTases), yielding insights into the role of selected ACP amino acids in the ACP-PPTase interaction. © 2006 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.