High extraction efficiency, laterally injected, light emitting diodes combining microcavities and photonic crystals
The use of photonic crystals (PCs) for realistic light emitting diodes (LEDs) is discussed, given the constraints of planar semiconductor technology. A viable route for the fabrication of high-efficiency high-brightness electrically injected LEDs is presented. The starting point is a top-emitting microcavity using a single Alox Bragg mirror. The active area is surrounded by two-dimensional PCs, namely arrays of air rods etched through the top layers; injection of the electrons is achieved through the crystals. Design rules for PCs as efficient out-couplers are detailed. The building blocks are assessed experimentally, and we show that promising results are at hand.