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Numerous applications demand that we manipulate large sets of very high-dimensional signals. A simple yet common example is the problem of finding those signals in a database that are closest to a query. In this paper, we tackle this problem by restricting our attention to a special class of signals that have a sparse approximation over a basis or a redundant dictionary. We take advantage of sparsity to approximate quickly the distance between the query and all elements of the database. In this way, we are able to prune recursively all elements that do not match the query, while providing bounds on the true distance. Validation of this technique on synthetic and real data sets confirms that it could be very well suited to process queries over large databases of compressed signals, avoiding most of the burden of decoding.