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We address the numerical simulation of fluid-structure interaction problems characterized by a strong added-mass effect. We propose a semi-implicit coupling scheme based on an algebraic fractional-step method. The basic idea of a semi-implicit scheme consists in coupling implicitly the added-mass effect, while the other terms (dissipation, convection and geometrical nonlinearities) are treated explicitly. Thanks to this kind of explicit–implicit splitting, computational costs can be reduced (in comparison to fully implicit coupling algorithms) and the scheme remains stable for a wide range of discretization parameters. In this paper we derive this kind of splitting from the algebraic formulation of the coupled fluid-structure problem (after finite-element space discretization). From our knowledge, it is the first time that algebraic fractional step methods, used thus far only for fluid problems in computational domains with rigid boundaries, are applied to fluid-structure problems. In particular, for the specific semi-implicit method presented in this work, we adapt the Yosida scheme to the case of a coupled fluid-structure problem. This scheme relies on an approximate LU block factorization of the matrix obtained after the discretization in time and space of the fluid-structure system. We analyze the numerical performances of this scheme on 2D fluid-structure simulations performed with a simple 1D structure model.