HRTEM simulation in determination of thickness and grain misorientation for hydroxyapatite crystals
High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and HRTEM simulation by the Bloch wave method (JEMS) are used to determine the structure and thickness of micro- and nanocrystals of biominerals and hydroxyapatite grown from aqueous solutions. It is established that thin (from one to several lattice parameters) crystals, including hydroxyapatite in mineralized biological tissues, are usually formed in low-temperature (up to 40degreesC) solutions. Relatively thick (up to several tens of lattice parameters) crystals grow only in high-temperature (similar to95degreesC) aqueous solutions. HRTEM simulation showed that crystals with a thickness exceeding one lattice parameter consist of nanograins misoriented with respect to one another along various directions within an angle of 0.7degrees.