High resolution and analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize short-period strained-layer Sim-Gen superlattices ( m monolayers Si, n monolayers Ge, total number of periods N≤ 145, total thickness ≃ 200 nm). The superlattices were grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy (T = 300–400°C) on different SiGe alloy buffer layers on Si (100)substrates. The combination of these two methods shows that detailed informations can be obtained about superlattice periodicity, interface roughness, strain, and average composition.