Méthodologie de gestion durable des ressources du sous-sol urbain
The world is becoming more and more urban. During the last fifty years, the population in Swiss cities has grown from 45% to 70% of the total population. This change is characterised by urban sprawl and by an increase in the consumption of resources, particularly those coming from rural areas. This evolution is not compatible with the principles of sustainable development. To solve this problem, new urban policies are being developed. They favour development within the urbanised areas and reduced use of exogenous resources. The urban underground contains resources – space, geomaterials, groundwater and geothermal energy – which can efficiently support such policies. This project analyses how these resources have been exploited until now and how they could be used with sustainability in mind. The use of underground resources was analysed in five cities : Mexico, Paris, Helsinki, Tokyo and Montreal. It appears that, although resources participate in the urban metabolism, there is an important lack of planning and coordination in their use. Developments follow a sectional approach where the resources are considered independently, and only at the scale of a given construction project. As a consequence, conflicts occur between uses and resources are wasted. An understanding of the urban underground as a system was developed with the aim of preventing conflicts and promoting synergies. To this effect, the way in which resources interact was considered attentively. Situations in which interactions occur were described and analysed and compatibility conditions were suggested. A methodology was elaborated to evaluate the resource potential of an urban underground. It aims at considering the resources and the interactions between their uses from the beginning of the process of urban planning. The methodology is based on the use of Geographical Information Systems and 3-D modelling of geological and hydrogeological conditions. It aims at reversing the current paradigm, that proceeds from the needs to the resources, into an approach based on resources to satisfy the needs. Spatial information was exploited to determine indicators and maps of potentiality and of restrictions. The derived results will help support decision making by planners and policy makers who seek to better exploit the resources from the urban underground. The methodology was tested and applied on a case study : Geneva. The developed approach allows more efficiency in the use of urban underground resources, it can help prevent conflicts between uses and develop synergies. When integrated in the urban planning process, it highlights new opportunities and helps to develop projects that take into account the physical conditions of the underground.
Keywords: underground ; resources ; land planning ; city ; geology ; 3D ; decision-making ; transdisciplinarity ; sous-sol ; ressource ; aménagement du territoire ; ville ; géologie ; 3D ; aide à la décision ; transdisciplinaritéThèse École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne EPFL, n° 4404 (2009)
Programme doctoral Environnement
Faculté de l'environnement naturel, architectural et construit
Institut des infrastructures, des ressources et de l'environnement
Laboratoire de géologie de l'ingénieur et de l'environnement
Record created on 2009-04-06, modified on 2015-09-18